This guide has been adapted for Nassau and Suffolk Counties.
Conceptos básicos de manutención infantil - Décimo Distrito Judicial
Definiciones de términos clave
Custodial Parent: The parent living with the child most of the time. Also referred to as the residential parent.
Padre sin custodia: The parent with whom the child does not live most of the time.
¿Por qué recibí documentos que decían que debo ir a la corte?
Someone or an agency filed a petición in court asking you to pay child support. A petition is a request in writing to the court, asking for an order to be made.
¿Quién puede presentar una petición de manutención infantil?
Una petición de manutención infantil puede ser presentada por:
- La persona que cuida al niño
- The Department of Social Services if the child is, or was, receiving public assistance; or
- The child (although this usually applies only to older children).
¿Cuándo termina la manutención de los hijos?
In New York State, a child can receive child support until the age of 21. Sometimes child support can end earlier. Examples of when it can end earlier are if the child joins the military or gets married.
¿Qué pasará cuando vaya a la corte?
En su comparecencia ante el tribunal, un magistrado de apoyo (MAJ- is-trayt) will hear the case and make an order for child support. The order for child support is a piece of paper that tells you how much money you have to pay, how often you have to pay it, and where to send it. A support magistrate is similar to a judge and has the power to make decisions about child support and paternidad (pa-TERN-i-tee) cases. A paternity case is about who the legal father of a child is.
¿Puedo conseguir un abogado para mi caso de manutención infantil?
In general, Family Court does not give parents free lawyers in child support cases. If the non-custodial parent is the respondent in a violation petition and is in danger of going to jail for not paying, they can request a lawyer to be assigned by the court. The respondent is the person against whom a case is filed. All parties may hire a lawyer if they want to. In some cases, the support magistrate may assign a lawyer called an attorney for the child to make sure that the best interests of the child are being protected.
¿Cómo se decide el monto de la manutención de los hijos?
The amount is based on a law called the Ley de normas de manutención infantil. First, the court determines the gross income of the two parents together. Gross income is the amount of money you earn before taxes are taken out. (The court sometimes uses different rules if the income is over $154,000). Some special expenses reduce your income for child support. These are known as deductions. Ordinary expenses, such as the electric bill, credit card bills, and rent, will not reduce your income level for child support. Once the court determines your total income, it uses the formula below to decide the amount needed to support the child:
- 1 niño = 17% de tus ingresos
- 2 hijos = 25% de tus ingresos
- 3 hijos = 29% de tus ingresos
- 4 hijos = 31% de tus ingresos
- 5 hijos o más = 35% de tus ingresos
Se le exigirá que pague al menos $25 por mes, incluso si recibe asistencia pública.
You may be ordered to pay extra for child care and health care costs. These are called add-on expenses. You may also be ordered to add the child to your health insurance.
What happens if I have not been paying regular child support?
The court can order retroactive support. This means you have to pay support from the date the petition was filed, even if that was long before you went to court. You can ask for credit for any payments you made after the petition was filed.
If you do not pay child support you were ordered to pay, you will owe atrasos. Arrears are unpaid child support. If you owe arrears, the court can add a set amount to your payment until you have paid all the money you owe.
¿Qué debo llevar a la corte?
- A carefully completed Financial Disclosure Affidavit. This form is used to give the court information about your income and expenses.
- Documentation that proves your salary, such as pay stubs.
- Copies of recent Federal and state income tax filings.
- Documentación de gastos de atención médica para usted y/o para la cobertura familiar, y el monto de esa cobertura.
- Documentation that shows your Social Security or disability benefits, worker’s compensation, unemployment benefits, veterans benefits, pension or retirement funds investments, fellowships, or annuities.
- Information or statements about any public assistance you receive, such as Medicaid, rental assistance, or SNAP benefits.
- Proof of expenses, such as child support paid for other children. These expenses may be subtracted from your income before the court determines your support payments.
- If you were ordered to pay support for another child, bring a copy of the order and proof of payments you made. Some ways to prove what you have paid are receipts for money orders, canceled checks, or pay stubs showing that the support has been removed.
¿Qué pasa si trabajo "fuera de los libros"?
Si trabaja “fuera de los libros” o no recibe cheques de pago regulares, el tribunal puede basar sus ingresos en uno de los siguientes:
- What you earned in the past;
- What the court thinks you could earn; or
- What the standard of living is in your household.
The amount the court decides on is called an imputed income. The court then uses this ingreso imputado to decide how much child support you have to pay. The court may also base the child support amount on your child’s needs.
¿Qué pasa si pierdo mi cita en la corte?
If you miss a court date, a support magistrate can issue a juicio por defecto. Una sentencia en rebeldía es una orden que se emite cuando alguien no se presenta al tribunal. En los casos de manutención de los hijos, la sentencia en rebeldía es una orden de manutención de los hijos contra el padre que no tiene la custodia. La orden se basa en la información que el padre con custodia proporcionó al tribunal.
If you want to cancel the order, you may file a motion to vacate. This is a written request asking the court to cancel the order. You must give the court a good reason for not showing up. Remember, if you cannot make a court appearance, you must file a written request to the support magistrate BEFORE your court date, explaining why you cannot appear. The support magistrate will decide what to do with your case.
¿Qué pasa si no estoy de acuerdo con la orden de manutención final?
You have the right to tell the court that you do not agree with the order. This is called an objeción. If you receive a copy of the order in court the day it was made, you have 30 days to file an objection in writing. If the order was mailed to you, you have 35 days from the day it was mailed to file the objection.
You can file the objection with the clerk of the Family Court where the decision was made. A judge will decide the case. You may not have to come back to court for another hearing. However, you must continue to pay the child support until the court changes the order. The court will mail the decision to you. For more information, see the Family Legal Care guide, “Cómo presentar una objeción o una refutación a una orden de manutención infantil.”
¿Qué pasa si no soy el padre?
If you were married to the mother when the child was born, the law presumes that you are the father. If you were married to the mother and believe that you are NOT the father, tell the support magistrate right away. This is called contesting paternity. Paternity means who is the legal father. The court must determine paternity before it can order child support. The court may order a DNA test. If the test shows you are the father, the court will issue an Orden de Filiación. This is a legal document saying who the father of a child is.
¿El tribunal me dará un abogado en un caso de paternidad?
If someone starts a paternity case against you, and you cannot afford a lawyer, you can ask the support magistrate to nombrar a lawyer to you for free. Appoint means to give. You can also hire your own lawyer. If you start a paternity case, the court may not give you a lawyer, even if you cannot afford one.
¿Cómo realizo los pagos de manutención?
It depends what the court order says. You may be ordered to pay the custodial parent directly or through the Support Collection Unit (SCU). If the custodial parent receives public assistance, SCU will automatically collect the support. There is a small fee for SCU services. SCU will keep track of all payments.
Remember: Always write the case number on your payment to SCU to make sure you get credit for the payment. Do not use cash – especially if you make payments directly to the other parent! Always make payments by money order or check.
What if SCU makes a mistake?
Go to the SCU office in your county, and ask to speak with a customer service representative. See page 5 for contact information for the local SCU offices. You can also call the New York State Office of Child Support Enforcement at 1-888-208-4485.
¿Por cuánto tiempo está vigente una orden de manutención?
Una vez que se ha ordenado la manutención de los hijos, permanece en vigor hasta que alguien le pida al tribunal que la cambie, sus hijos cumplan 21 años o sus hijos cumplan 21 años. emancipado. Children are emancipated if they are living separately from the custodial parent and supporting themselves, are married, or are in the military. You can file a modification petition to terminate, or stop, orders of support. Remember that you will have to show proof of these changes.
If you pay through the SCU, they automatically reconsider the case every three years. When they evaluate the case, SCU may add a cost-of-living (COLA) increase. SCU can do this without going back to court. If they do this, they will send you a letter.
What if I am supporting my children?
Asegúrese de conservar los recibos de todos los pagos de manutención para poder demostrar que los ha pagado. Pagar facturas o comprar regalos no reemplaza el pago de manutención infantil. Debes realizar pagos regulares. También deberá pagar los atrasos que se hayan acumulado.
¿Qué pasa si no pago?
Once there is a court order to pay child support, you must pay. If you do not pay, you will have arrears. Arrears WILL NOT go away, even after your child turns 21. Declaring bankruptcy will NOT get rid of arrears either. SCU has different ways to get the money from you. For example:
- SCU can have your employer take the child support directly from your paycheck. This is called embargar su salario. (By law, your employer must do this. Your employer cannot fire you because of it.)
- SCU can take your state or federal tax refund before you get it. SCU can also take money directly from your bank account.
- If you owe more than a few months of support, SCU can suspend your driver’s license or professional license until you pay the arrears.
- If you owe a lot of money, and SCU or the custodial parent asks the court to find that you are violando intencionalmente the support order, you could be put in jail for up to six (6) months. Willfully violating means not following the order when you have the ability to pay.
¿Qué puedo hacer si pierdo mi trabajo o no puedo pagar?
If you lose your job or cannot pay for another reason – such as your income was lowered or you are going to prison – the court will not automatically change the amount of child support you are supposed to pay. If you cannot pay, you can immediately file a petition for downward modification in the Family Court where the order was made. This is a written request asking the court to lower the amount of child support you pay. To get the court to lower the amount, you must prove that a substantial change of circumstances has happened since the support magistrate made the final order
- A substantial change of circumstance can be that you are incarcerated as long as the incarceration is not because of not paying child support or a crime against the custodial parent or child.
- You can also ask for a modification if three (3)
years have passed since the last order was made.
- Also, if either your or the custodial parent’s income changed (either up or down) by 15% or more since the last order was made, you may request a modification.
When you go to court, you must bring proof that your income changed. You can ask the court to reduce your support going back to the date when you filed the petition. However, until the court makes a different order, you must continue to pay the original amount.
El tribunal puede analizar lo que usted ganó antes y decidir que podría ganar más de lo que gana ahora. Si esto sucede, es posible que el tribunal no cambie la orden.
What if I already support my children?
Be sure to keep receipts for all support payments so you can show that you have paid them. Paying bills or buying gifts does not replace paying child support. You must make regular child support payments. You must also pay for any arrears that have added up.
Si he estado pagando manutención, ¿puedo también recibir visitas?
Not necessarily. Child support and visitation are not connected. If you have not been able to see your children, you can file a petition for visitation in Family Court. Whether or not you are seeing your children, you are still responsible for paying child support. For more information on getting visitation with your children, see the Family Legal Care guide “Custody and Visitation Basics.”
What if there is no child support case, but I want to support my children?
In general, non-custodial parents cannot start child support cases. If you want to support your children but do not know where they are, you can put the money in a separate bank account until you find them.
If my children are on public assistance and I pay support, who gets the money?
If the custodial parent receives public assistance, SCU will automatically collect the support. If you do not owe arrears, $100 of your monthly payment will go directly to the custodial parent. This is called a pass-through. If you owe arrears, support will go toward the arrears first. The county will still collect support payments from you even if you give money directly to the custodial parent. The county may also reduce the child’s public assistance budget to recover this “extra” money received by the family.
¿Puedo retirar a mi hijo de la asistencia pública?
The non-custodial parent cannot take children off of public assistance. Only the custodial parent who started the public assistance case can do so.
¿Por qué un padre con custodia retiraría a los niños de la asistencia pública?
If your income is high enough, your children may receive more money by getting support from you instead of from public assistance. For example, if you are the father of all the children in the mother’s home, and she can show that you will support them, taking them off public assistance should not be a problem. If the mother has children by other fathers on her public assistance budget, taking your children off is more difficult. The state wants all children in a household to have the same income, so the mother might not be able to take only your children off of public assistance.
¿Dónde puedo acudir para obtener ayuda?
If SCU is working on your case, go to the SCU office in your county and ask to speak to a customer service representative. You can also call the New York State Office of Child Support Enforcement at 1-888-208-4485.
SCU offices by county:
60 Charles Lindbergh Boulevard, Suite 160
Uniondale, NY 11553
3455 Veterans Memorial Highway
Ronkonkoma, NY 11779
Este documento no debe reemplazar una consulta con un abogado. Family Legal Care alienta a todas las personas involucradas con los sistemas de tribunales penales y de familia a consultar con un abogado.